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The Vitamin D Receptor

The calciferol receptor (VDR) is a necessary protein that is turned on by vitamin D. It virtual data room comparison is associated with maintaining the mineral balance in the body and leading to growth and hair expansion. It also interacts with adipose muscle.

VDRs are expressed in the parathyroid glands, intestines, epithelial cells, and many resistant cell types. They are believed to regulate the intestinal ingestion of calcium supplement, and to mediate some of the effects of vitamin D about bone repair. Also, they are thought to play an important role in metabolic process.

VDR is found in a variety of tissue, including epithelial cells, macrophages, neutrophils, and skin keratinocytes. However , they can be most widely expressed in the kidneys and halloween bones.

The VDR is phosphorylated in serine residues by many protein kinases. These kinases include PKA and PKC. The effect these kinases about VDR is normally ligand based. Specifically, the phosphorylation of Ser51 by simply PKC lowered VDR nuclear localization. Likewise, phosphorylation of Ser182 by PKA reduced RXR heterodimerization.

Studies have shown that VDRs can be found in a subset of glial cells, specifically in oligodendrocytes in white subject. Although VDR immunoreactivity has been diagnosed in a number of glial cell lines, no facts has been presented that the existence of VDR in glia is a cause of increased likelihood of tumorigenesis.

Additionally , VDR seems present in a subset of neurons. In fact , nuclear staining has been confirmed in our cortex and glial cell-lines.

A large 220-kDa protein can be found in human most important glioblastoma skin cells. In contrast, a little recombinant VDR-like protein was produced.

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